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Abstract This thesis explores the methodologies employed by the underground resistance movements of World War II to manage the inherent difficulties with operating in a clandestine environment Specifically, it examines the role of the underground, the advantages and disadvantages of operating underground and discusses the management procedures implemented by clandestine organizations to address the topics of recruitment, internal security, leadership and command and control.
The underground organizations are examined generically, recognizing that there are fundamental principles, management requirements and security dictates are universally applicable -- whether discussing World War II resistance movements or contemporary guerrilla groups. Description Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.
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Naval Postgraduate School , ;. This thesis explores the methods employed by the underground resistance movements of World War 11 to manage the inherent difficulties associated with operating in a clandestine environment. Specifically, it examines the Like many of their peers, they love the freedom underground. Where else is that possible? Our breath gathers in clouds along the ceiling. Water plunks in the distance. Charlier considers the chunk of spine. Malta fever, or brucellosis, strikes people who come into contact with infected animals or their secretions, such as milk. I look down the corridor.
We stand in a kind of library; ten thousand more stories like the fromager's lie within view. He grins. We rattle down a quiet avenue on a warm spring morning. Men and women walk to work beneath the deep green canopies of the chestnuts. In the suburb of Arcueil the driver pulls over on a busy street. At the roadside his colleagues are slipping into blue coveralls and tall rubber boots, putting on helmets.
We join them at a manhole beneath an ivy-covered embankment.
A dark shaft falls away at our feet. Trespassing cataphiles, like the student above, venture into this buried past for the thrill of it; some draw their own elaborate maps of its intricacies. One by one the members of the team switch on their headlamps and step down the ladder. It is their job to make sure Paris doesn't collapse into the quarries that riddle its foundations.
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At the bottom of the ladder we squat in a narrow passage, while Anne-Marie Leparmentier, a geologist, measures the oxygen level. Today there is plenty. We head off into the passage, bent over like trolls under the low ceiling. The limestone walls sweat, and water sloshes around our boots. Fossils of sea creatures peel out of the stone, and in a slick of mud we find a rusty horseshoe—a relic from an animal that worked down here more than a century ago, hauling stones. Modern Paris sits atop massive formations of limestone and gypsum. Over the centuries, as Roman Lutetia became Paris, quarrymen burrowed deeper and wider, carving out the stuff of the city's great buildings—the Louvre, for example, and Notre Dame.
Open pits evolved into networks of underground galleries. In the beginning the quarries lay far beyond the city limits. But as the city grew, parts of it sprawled directly above old tunnels.
WORLD WAR II
This progression happened over generations and without oversight. Quarrymen labored in an unregulated world of torchlight, choking dust, and crushing accidents. When they exhausted a quarry, they stuffed it with rubble or simply abandoned it. At the surface, no one paid much attention. No one realized how porous the foundations of Paris had become.
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The first major collapse occurred in December , when an unstable tunnel crumbled, swallowing houses and people along what is now the Avenue Denfert-Rochereau. More holes opened over the next few years, sending more houses tumbling into darkness. Slowly teams of inspectors worked through them, shoring them up. To make their job easier they dug more tunnels to connect the isolated networks.
Around the same time, when the king decided to close and empty one of the city's packed, putrefying cemeteries, Guillaumot was asked to put the bones somewhere—and so some Parisian quarries became the catacombs. Today Leparmentier and her team continue the work of Guillaumot's first inspectors.
Nearly a hundred feet below the street, we pause before a pillar, a stack of five or six boulders from the early s. Small collapses still happen every year, she tells me; as recently as , the earth swallowed an entire neighborhood in the southern suburbs, killing 21 people. Leparmentier makes some notes. Another tunnel runs beneath us. She makes a plunging motion with her hand. Someday this pillar might fail, and the tunnel we stand in may collapse into the one below it. We go deeper. At the end of a corridor we sit and contemplate the small dark hole I was warned of hours before.
It's barely as wide as my shoulders.
Paris Underground: Subterranean Resistance and the Nazi Occupation – Munitions of the Mind
No one is sure where it goes. A young member of the team stuffs himself into the hole, his legs kicking the air. I glance at Leparmentier, and she shakes her head, as if to say, No way am I going in there. But she also waves her hand: Be my guest. Some cataphiles go underground only occasionally and stick to well-known routes. The hard core go oftener and farther. I find my next guides, two dark-haired young men in blue coveralls, lounging in sunlight on a park bench in a quiet neighborhood, with a scuba tank and other dive gear beside them.
Mothers pushing strollers eye them uneasily. Dominique is a repairman; Yopie—he'll only give his cataphile nickname—is a computer graphics designer, father of two, and an accomplished cave diver.
We gather the gear and head beneath a bridge, where cool air sighs up from their secret entrance. As we approach, a mud-covered man climbs out like a spider. He's just been setting up a bachelor party, he says.
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Most of the underground has been mapped. Guillaumot's early, intricate maps have been updated many times by his successors, and cataphiles make their own maps. Some, like Yopie, go to great lengths to fill in the remaining blank spots. We wade past many tunnels before we find the object of his desire today: a black hole.
Related Underground Management: An Examination of World War II Resistance Movements
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