The gropings of the Revolutionary and early Napoleonic years toward the setting up of educational machinery had now at length produced a system that seemed a marvel of centralization; the new University of France, embracing all stages and conditions of the educational process, was organized and operating. It was organized, as was the censorship, as a section of the Ministry of the Interior, and the Director General in this first period seems animated by the ambition of being really a co-ordinate educational force, if not of developing a superior educational control.
Count Joseph Portalis was a very serious young man, and as has been shown in part above he lost no time in magniloquently enunciating extended plans for influence through his office in general education, as well as for the direction of the adult spirit. His first general bulletin set forth this programme explicitly; after dwelling upon the unsatisfactory character of popular publications, he proceeds:.
In later bulletins of the year Portalis followed this up by pointing out the measures he had taken or was meditating for reinforcing the work of the schools in popular education; some of these I have already referred to. With such aims text-books were sure of being regarded critically, and I have shown above how this care was applied in the field of recent history.
The historical texts however seem to have remained quite unequal to the aims of the director. On another occasion after dwelling again on this defect the di- rector announces his intention of entering upon a reform by compilations for the use of young children, as it was of special importance to apply the improvement at a tender age. The taste of the Baron de Pommereul in text-books was apparently not so exacting as that of his predecessor. But in the field of historical research he found on one occasion more activity than he could approve of, when with grave distrust he passed M.
For my present purpose the exercise of the censorship in the interests of religion and morality may be classed as educational. But it is a large additional field of activity, evoking frequent interventions, and can only be glanced at. Harmony between the new Charlemagne and his pope had indeed long since departed, but the State for statesmanlike reasons continued to demand respect for the Church, and to uphold its place as one of the chief props of society and government.
In the field of morals the austere and pedagogical Portalis was much more severe than his older and more military successor; both the minister and the Emperor however seem to have intervened in the later period against a policy that was charged with being Puritanic. As we should expect, it is M. Portalis who is particularly concerned to up- hold the Church as the basis of morality and an indispensable prop to Society and the State. He even enters on the Herculean labor of keeping the novel of the day in line with decency and safe theology. Seizures and confiscations of obscene books and prints are frequently referred to.
Portalis as sufficiently opaque. The learned M. The criticism of manuscripts in the fields of dogma or religious philosophy was furnished by an ecclesiastic of decided Gallican convictions, and he was instructed to hold an even course between maintaining respect for religious things and encouraging mysticism or excessive piety. The frequently expressed apprehension as to mysticism we might also say as to undue piety is perhaps peculiarly French; a religious revival was however making headway, and there were good political reasons for not encouraging it.
It was to the field of belles-lettres that most of the attention of the censors was directed, and their literary criticisms are often of very considerable interest, more especially perhaps with regard to the origins of French romanticism. Of the manuscripts submitted to the censorship in the month of April , seventy-six were literary; we may probably regard this as a representative pro- portion.
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Even when not considered objectionable these productions were described in the bulletins, and the descriptions were frequently accompanied by reflections as to the literary conditions and tendencies of the day. The student of public spirit in France will find here much information concerning popular reading and the intellectual tastes and habits of the period; there are valuable indications also in the field of comparative literature.
If space permitted it would be of interest to present references to and decisions concerning the light literature of the day in a sufficient degree to show not only its characteristics, but something of the literary fashions of time, and of the conditions under which the literary artist was working. Of the few notable books of these four years Mme. The production of the period was for the most part unimportant, and this dearth of notable authorship was naturally associated with a strong tendency to translation and with popular support of translations.
In the variegated array of minor literary productions that the bulletins bring before us the leading place was taken by efforts in the field of romance. It is interesting to find that most of these romances are either translations or imitations of the English, and that the species advancing most rapidly in favor is the historical.
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- Le poids de l'Histoire - Persée.
- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.
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This species however was decidedly not in favor with either M. Portalis or M. At a later period M. Translation from and imitations of Mrs Radcliffe, Miss Edgeworth, and other British story-tellers frequently appear, and the originals are usually referred to with respect.
There is some translation from the German, but it is usually into Dutch for consumption in Holland. The romances of German origin are evidently too heavy to be used in the original, but they seem to be making headway in adaptations or imitations. To this melancholy category probably belonged the romance by Mme. Among the literary fashions of the period that are indicated in the bulletins is, we are surprised to learn, a demand for books on Mme. A translation of selections from Pope is received with an amiability that is exceptional, and with some remarks on the literary connections between France and England that are of interest.
I have perhaps yielded somewhat to a natural tendency to dwell disproportionately on the trivialities and illiberalities of these reports.
Le Petit Prince By Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
A more extended survey would reveal much sound sense. But it is not necessary to moralize on this episode in the history of censorship. Collaboration juive sous le nazisme.
Travaux de recherche en histoire. He received his B. Yale awarded him the Henry Fellowship for graduate study at Cambridge University , where he received his M. Alexis studied mathematics and philosophy as an undergraduate at Palm Beach Atlantic University and has a master's degree in education from Grand Canyon University. Inflicted terror. La Terre est grande, dit le serpent. Elle est juste au-dessus de nous Mais comme elle est loin! Je puis Il en existe, je crois, six ou sept. Le petit prince fit l'ascension d'une haute montagne. Et les hommes manquent d'imagination. Et les routes vont toutes chez les hommes.
Tu cherches des poules? Et je n'ai pas besoin de toi.
Et tu n'a pas besoin de moi non plus. Mais, si tu m'apprivoises, nous aurons besoin l'un de l'autre. Tu seras pour moi unique au monde. Je serai pour toi unique au monde Il y a une fleur Je chasse les poules, les hommes me chassent.wertkutsrenquaypin.cf
Censorship and Literature under Napoleon I
Toutes les poules se ressemblent, et tous les hommes se ressemblent. Je m'ennuie donc un peu. Les autres pas me font rentrer sous terre. Le tien m'appellera hors du terrier, comme une musique. Et puis regarde! Je ne mange pas de pain. Mais tu a des cheveux couleur d'or. Mais comme il n'existe point de marchands d'amis, les hommes n'ont plus d'amis. Si tu veux un ami, apprivoise-moi!
Je te regarderai du coin de l'oeil et tu ne diras rien. Le langage est source de malentendus. Plus l'heure avancera, plus je me sentirai heureux. Il y a un rite, par exemple, chez mes chasseurs.
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